Dottorato di Ricerca  Sapienza University of Rome XXXVI Ciclo  Spring 2021 Omar Benhar 

Startig on April 19, lectures will be given in person in classroom 2, Fermi building, according to the following schedule Monday 10:0012:00 Wednesday 10:0012:00 In the final stage of the evolution leading to a supernova explosion and the formation of a neutron star, the density of stellar matter reaches values of order 10^{11} – 10^{15} g/cm^{3}. At the densities typical of terrestrial macroscopic bodies, of order 1 g/cm^{3}, the structure of matter is determined mainly by electromegnetic interactions. In the density regime of compact stars, on the other hand, the picture changes drastically, because other interactions—as well as purely quantummechanical effects—become important, in fact dominant. In addition, a transition to the phases of superdense matter predicted by the fundamental theory of strong interactions—QuantumChromoDynamics, or QCD—is expected to occur. The course is aimed at providing the basic concepts relevant to the understanding of the structure and dynamics of dense matter, and review the existing theoretical models. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between the observed properties of compact stars and the dynamics determining their structure at microscopic level. The course is meant to be largely selfcontained. The only prerequisite is to have taken the classes of Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Introduction to Nuclear and Subnuclear Physics of the Laurea Magistrale. The course will be of 20 hours, corresponding to 3 credits, arranged in twohour lectures twice per week. The final test will consist of a presentation of about 20 minutes, on a subject selected among those discussed in class. 